Competitive Alternatives 2014
Competitive Alternatives 2012
Competitive Alternatives 2010
Competitive Alternatives 2008
Competitive Alternatives 2006
Competitive Alternatives 2004
Competitive Alternatives 2002
Competitive Alternatives
Selecting the best site for a business operation requires comprehensive consideration of many financial and non-financial factors, examined from both a business and personal perspective. The relative importance of these factors will vary significantly; not only for different industries, but also for individual firms within a particular industry.

Since its inception in 1996, KPMG's Competitive Alternatives study has provided independent analysis of the major costs and other factors that impact the site location decision. The MMK Consulting team has been instrumental in the development of this major international study since its inception, and manage most aspects of the ongoing Competitive Alternatives series on behalf of KPMG.

Released on March 28, 2014, the latest edition of Competitive Alternatives offers detailed analysis of business location factors in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

For full details on the Competitive Alternatives 2014 Edition, visit the study website (developed and maintained by MMK Consulting) at

In various previous editions of Competitive Alternatives, MMK Consulting professionals have been involved in analyzing business competitiveness in all of the following countries:
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • China
  • France
  • Germany
  • Iceland
  • India
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Luxembourg
  • Mexico
  • Netherlands
  • Singapore
  • Sweden
  • Russia
  • United Kingdom
  • United States

Competitive Alternatives Special Report: Focus on Tax

Focus On Tax 2014 Focus On Tax 2012 Focus On Tax 2010 Focus On Tax 2008

As part of the Competitive Alternatives 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014 projects, on behalf of KPMG, MMK Consulting developed a special report focusing on comparing tax burdens in major cities in leading countries.

These studies calculate and compare the Total Tax Index and Total Effective Tax Rate, including corporate income taxes, other corporate taxes, and statutory labor costs for each country and city.

Click here to view this report. Cost Model

As part of the Competitive Alternatives project, on behalf of KPMG, MMK Consulting developed and maintains this sophisticated web-based application which allows users to perform customized analysis of the costs of operating different types of businesses in more than 130 cities around the world. The model is licensed to economic development agencies, to assist them in performing powerful "what if" analysis based on the business plans of their clients.

Tax Costs in Ontario

Between the 2008 and 2010 editions of Competitive Alternatives Special Report: Focus on Tax, on behalf of KPMG, MMK Consulting developed an update of this study, to assist the Ontario Ministry of Finance assess the impact of various tax changes being implemented in Ontario in 2010.

A copy of this special report is available on the Ontario Ministry of Finance website.

Adelaide's Business Cost Competitiveness

MMK Consulting, in conjunction with KPMG, completed a project for the Government of South Australia that benchmarked business costs for Australia, including four Australian cities, against the 2006 Competitive Alternatives results.

Building upon this analysis, a further study, for the Australian federal Department of Transport and Regional Services benchmarked business costs in a total of 28 Australian cities.

Click here to view this study.

Business Costs in Iceland, A Comparative Study of 87 cities

Business Costs in Iceland Using our experience from the Competitive Alternatives project, MMK Consulting assisted KPMG Iceland in undertaking a detailed comparison of business costs in Iceland, as compared to the cities included in the Competitive Alternatives study. The results of the study found Iceland to be favorably positioned in terms of business operating costs for many types of high-technology businesses and for service operations in general.

Click here to view this report.

Location Sensitive Cost Analysis for Data Centres

On behalf of the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA), MMK Consulting completed an analysis of data centre operations using the Competitive Alternatives methodology of location sensitive business costs comparison.

The study assessed both physical characteristics and infrastructure requirements of typical data centre operations, and the detailed business costs for operating a prototype facility in a total of 71 international cities.

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